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Factores de Riesgo

Dentro de los principales factores de riesgo para Nefropatía Epidémica de Mesoamérica están:

  • Trabajo físico extenuante y clima cálido en zonas costeras a < 500 msnm. (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 20).
  • Trabajar en la Agricultura (6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 18, 20, 21), especialmente: cultivo de caña de azúcar (3, 4, 8, 10, 11, 19), banana (11, 18), cultivo de subsistencia (11), arroz (18), maíz (18).
  • Sexo Masculino. (1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 21).
  • Edades entre 50 y 59 años. (1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 18).
  • Pobreza y bajo nivel socioeconómico. (1, 2, 9, 14).
  • Uso de AINES y medicina herbaria. (8, 12, 15, 21).
  • Exposición a pesticidas. (8, 16, 17, 18, 21).

REFERENCIAS:

  1. Mesoamerican Nephropathy: Report from the First International Research Workshop on MeN. http://www.regionalnephropathy.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Technical-Report-for-Website-Final.pdf.
  2. Crowe J, Wesseling C, Solano BR, et al. Heat exposure in sugarcane harvesters in Costa Rica. Am J Ind Med 2013; 56:1157.
  3. Gracia-Trabanino R, Domínguez J, Jansà JM, Oliver A. Proteinuria and chronic renal failure in the coast of El Salvador: detection with low cost methods and associated factors. Nefrologia 2005; 25:31.
  4. Peraza S, Wesseling C, Aragon A, et al. Decreased kidney function among agricultural workers in El Salvador. Am J Kidney Dis 2012; 59:531.
  5. O’Donnell JK, Tobey M, Weiner DE, et al. Prevalence of and risk factors for chronic kidney disease in rural Nicaragua. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2011; 26:2798.
  6. Trabanino RG, Aguilar R, Silva CR, et al.End-stage renal disease among patients in a referral hospital in El Salvador. Rev Panam Salud Pública 2002; 12:202
  7. Salud para un país de futuro. OPS junio/2003, pag. 223-230.
  8. Orantes CM, Herrera R, Almaguer M, et al. Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in adults of Salvadoran agricultural communities. MEDICC Rev 2014; 16:23
  9. Lebov JF, Valladares E, Peña R, et al. A population-based study of prevalence and risk factors of chronic kidney disease in León, Nicaragua. Can J Kidney Health Dis 2015; 2:6.
  10. Pan American Health Organization. Resolution CD52.R1. Chronic kidney disease in agricultural communities in Central America [Internet]. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization; 2013 [cited 2013 Jun 13]. 2 p. Available from: http://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=8833&Itemid=40033&lang=en
  11. Torres C, Aragón A, González M, et al. Decreased kidney function of unknown cause in Nicaragua: a community-based survey. Am J Kidney Dis 2010; 55:485.
  12. Raines N, González M, Wyatt C, et al. Risk factors for reduced glomerular filtration rate in a Nicaraguan community affected by Mesoamerican nephropathy. MEDICC Rev 2014; 16:16.
  13. Manuel Cerdas. Chronic kidney disease in Costa Rica. Kidney International, Vol. 68, Supplement 97 (2005), pp. S31–S33.
  14. Catalina Martín Cleary, AlbertoOrtiz. CKD hot spots around the world: where, why and what the lessons are. Clin KidneyJ(2014)7:1–5 doi: 10.1093/ckj/sfu118
  15. Carlos M. Orantes MD, Raúl Herrera MD PhD DrSc,Chronic Kidney Disease and Associated Risk Factors in the Bajo Lempa Region of El Salvador: Nefrolempa Study, 2009. MEDICC Review, October 2011, Vol 13, No 414.
  16. Ordunez P, Martinez R, Reveiz L, et al. Chronic kidney disease epidemic in Central America: urgent public health action is needed amid causal uncertainty. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2014; 8:e3019.
  17. D’Haese PC, Elsevier MM, Yaqoob M, De Broe M. Organic solvents, silicon-containing compounds and pesticides. In: Clinical Nephrotoxins. Renal Injury from Drugs and Chemicals, De Broe ME, Porter GA. (Eds), Springer, New York 2008. p.827.
  18. Scott L. Sanoff1, Luis Callejas2. Positive association of renal insufficiency with agriculture employment and unregulated alcohol consumption in Nicaragua. Renal Failure, 32, 766–777, 2010 Copyright © Informa UK Ltd. ISSN: 0886-022X print / 1525-6049 online DOI: 10.3109/0886022X.2010.494333
  19. Michael McClean Juan José Amador Rebecca Laws BIOLOGICAL SAMPLING REPORT: Investigating biomarkers of kidney injury and chronic kidney disease among workers in Western Nicaragua. Boston University School of Public Health, April 26, 2012
  20. Daniel E. Weiner et al. The Central American Epidemic of CKD. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 8: 504–511, 2013. doi: 10.2215/CJN.05050512
  21. Herrera R, Orantes CM, Almaguer M, et al. Clinical characteristics of chronic kidney disease of nontraditional causes in Salvadoran farming communities. MEDICC Rev 2014; 16:39.